Wednesday, October 19, 2022
HomeHair CareA Complete Information to The Science of Hair

A Complete Information to The Science of Hair

Let’s discuss primary hair concept– the science of hair and the way it all works!

In magnificence college, hairstylists be taught every thing you possibly can think about about hair. This consists of hair colour concept, chemistry, anatomy, hair construction… and even the enterprise aspect of operating a salon.

Truthfully, all of these items are tremendous essential. Are you able to think about what occurs to your shopper’s scalp when you don’t combine the bleach appropriately? Unhealthy, dangerous issues can occur with out the correct coaching…

However, don’t have any concern! This text will infuse you with all the fundamental hair information you want!

So do you assume you have got what it takes to do hair? Preserve studying to seek out out…

💡TIP: Pin this text to your Hair Shade board on Pinterest so you possibly can all the time come again when it is advisable! 👇🏼👇🏼👇🏼

There's so much more to hairstyling than you realize. Find out everything you need to know about basic hair theory with this ultimate guide.

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Hair Idea 101

Human hair under the microscope.

So what’s hair?

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial, primarily composed of Keratin. It grows from hair follicles discovered within the dermis and covers many of the human physique.

It’s additionally a singular attribute of mammals.

Hair Construction 101

Every strand of hair consists of three separate layers: the cuticle, medulla, and cortex.

Hair Structure: Cuticle, Medulla, Cortex

The Cuticle

The cuticle is the outermost layer, containing arduous, shingle-like cells that overlap one another. Its objective is to strengthen the hair and defend the inside layers.

This layer determines how wholesome your hair seems to be.

In wholesome hair, the scales lay flat on one another, giving the hair a glossy, shiny look. Quite the opposite, broken hair has raised scales, making the hair seem like tough and textured.

That being mentioned, you possibly can alter the state of the cuticle in numerous methods. Let me clarify…

Gentle warmth (like a towel wrapped round your head after the bathe) or acidic hair merchandise easy down the cuticle; alkaline merchandise swell the hair and lift the scales again up.

The Cuticle of Healthy Hair vs Damaged Hair

The Cortex & Medulla

Beneath the cuticle lies the cortex. This layer resides in the course of the hair shaft and makes up the majority of the hair.

Melanin, aka colour pigment, is discovered within the cortex and determines the colour of the hair. Moreover, the form of the cortex determines if the hair is straight, wavy, or curly.

This layer additionally holds water and keratin proteins. All chemical therapies (hair colour, perms, relaxers, and many others.) happen within the cortex.

Final however not least, the innermost layer of the hair is known as the medulla, and its objective remains to be unknown. In truth, you gained’t even discover it in folks with fantastic hair.

Now that you’ve a stable understanding of hair construction, let’s dive into hair colour concept…

Hair Shade Idea 101

Hair colour ranges are organized from 1-10. Stage 1 refers to black hair, whereas degree 10 is the lightest shade of blonde.

Hair color numbers/level chart system.

Shade Idea

All naturally occurring hair colours are constructed from totally different mixtures of the three major colours: crimson, blue, and yellow.

Color wheel or color circle with twelve colors

Okay, so check out the colour wheel. Do you discover that the first colours divide it into three sections? This makes it a lot simpler to visualise colour concept.

Now we are able to see the secondary colours, that are made by mixing two major colours collectively; they sit instantly between the 2 major colours on the wheel.

These colours are inexperienced (blue + yellow), orange (crimson + yellow), and violet (blue + crimson).

The cool factor concerning the colour wheel is that it exhibits you the way colours work collectively; the colour that sits instantly throughout from one other is its complementary colour.

That is tremendous essential with hair colour… as a result of complementary colours both intensify or neutralize one another.

So take into consideration this… when hair is bleached, it often turns pale yellow. A violet-based toner will cancel out the yellow tones and make the hair seem platinum-blonde.

Likewise, orange hair could be toned with a blue (ash)-based toner. Because of this “blonde” shampoos are likely to have blue or purple pigments in them.

How Hair Shade Works

Two foremost chemical substances present in everlasting hair colour are hydrogen peroxide and ammonia.

Ammonia separates the cuticle scales, permitting the colour to get contained in the hair; peroxide oxidizes the pigment. When hair colour penetrates the cortex, it deposits colour molecules too huge to flee.

Because of this it’s arduous to get colour out as soon as you place it in.

Bleaching hair entails an identical course of. The peroxide softens and lifts the cuticle so the bleach can go in and disperse the colour molecules within the cortex.

Developer is the peroxide element we combine with hair colour after we’re prepared to use it… and there are totally different ranges of developer that every do various things.

5V and 10V (V=quantity) are deposit solely, that means they’ll’t carry the hair to a lighter shade. Subsequently, it’s best to solely use these guys when going darker.

20V lifts as much as 2 ranges and deposits some colour. That is probably the most generally used developer and is finest for gray protection.

Likewise, 30V lifts as much as 3 ranges and 40V as much as 4 ranges.

40V isn’t used usually, because it causes probably the most injury and may injure the scalp if misused; it’s sometimes solely used with high-lift blondes and bleach.

Forms of Hair Shade

There's so much more to hairstyling than you realize. Find out everything you need to know about basic hair theory with this ultimate guide.

When eager about what sort of colour to make use of, contemplate how lengthy it would final, how a lot injury it causes, and if it could actually lighten your hair or not.

Some hair colours are “deposit” solely, whereas others can “carry” your hair to a lighter shade.

  • Everlasting colours can carry hair as much as three ranges and final till the hair grows out.
  • Excessive-lift colours can carry the hair about 4 ranges; these are varieties of everlasting hair colour meant for lighter blondes.
  • Demi-permanent colours final about 4-6 weeks and finally wash out with out a line of demarcation; these can not carry hair to a lighter shade.
  • Semi-permanent colours solely coat the hair shaft with out penetrating into the cortex. When utilized appropriately, these colours can final just a few weeks.
  • Short-term colour washes out within the bathe.

There's so much more to hairstyling than you realize. Find out everything you need to know about basic hair theory with this ultimate guide.

Shade Correction 101

So… generally your colour doesn’t prove the way you anticipated. What do you do then?

Whereas a number of elements are at play (if the hair is gentle sufficient, how even the appliance was, situation of the hair, and many others.), hair toners can often assist. These distinctive hair colours are designed to deposit pigment and alter the tone.

As beforehand talked about, you should utilize an ash colour to neutralize the brassy tones… or a violet-based toner to kill the yellow hues.

💡RELATED: How To Use a Hair Toner For Brassiness

Until you want yellow hair, it’s best to all the time tone bleached hair. That is the way you get the totally different blonde shades like ash, platinum, strawberry, and many others.


Let’s say you have got platinum blonde hair however need to go darker. You’re gonna wanna repigment or “fill” the hair first… in any other case, you’ll find yourself with light, ashy hair colour.

To repigment the hair, you usually need to use reddish-gold colours which can be one degree lighter than the specified colour.

Whereas all colour strains are totally different, you possibly can often discover a “repigmentation” method for the particular colour you need to use. At all times comply with the instructions for the perfect outcomes.

An instance repigmentation course of: For Paul Mitchell colour, you’ll combine equal components of the formulation with 10V developer and apply to damp hair.

Course of for 10 minutes after which apply the goal colour over the repigmentation method (until the goal method is cool/impartial, then wipe off the repigmentation method first).

Course of the entire thing for a further 35 minutes, after which BAM… repigmented hair.

There’s a cause why hair colour specialists receives a commission the massive bucks…

The Golden Rule of Hair Shade

An excellent essential factor to find out about hair colour concept is that colour won’t carry beforehand coloured hair predictably.

This mainly implies that in case your hair was beforehand coloured darkish brown, and also you need to carry it to a lighter colour, you’ll must bleach/strip your hair earlier than you possibly can colour it.

Contemplate every thing we’ve talked about up to now… In case your hair already has darkish colour molecules within the cortex, and you place one other colour on prime of it… you’re simply smashing extra colour molecules into the cortex.

Shade will carry virgin hair, however not hair that has already been coloured.

Perms / Straighteners 101

Woman getting permanent wave done on her hair.

We will’t discuss hair concept with out relating perms.

First off, there are two varieties of perms: acid and alkaline. Alkaline perms are used for normal-to-coarse hair, whereas acid perms are higher for broken, coloured, and/or finer hair varieties.

Acid Perms are much less damaging however require outdoors warmth to course of.

Learn how to do a Perm

Earlier than beginning a perm, the hair ought to all the time be clarified to take away buildup and different issues that present up within the hair (like medicines). Skip on the conditioner, which interferes with the perm answer.

Towel dry the hair; when damp, the hair needs to be wrapped with perm rods, utilizing sections which can be the identical size and width because the perm rod.

Likewise, the width of the perm rod will dictate how huge the curls might be.

When all hair has been wrapped into perm rods, perm answer needs to be utilized to every rod individually. As soon as the hair has been totally saturated, let it course of for the period of time listed on the field (sometimes round 20 minutes).

Perm options work by breaking down the disulfide bonds in your hair (the proteins that give your hair form).

As soon as the hair has been absolutely processed, the perm answer needs to be utterly rinsed out, and the hair needs to be blotted with a towel till barely damp.

At this level, a neutralizer is utilized to every perm rod; this rebuilds the disulfide bonds within the new form of the perm rod. Let it sit there for five minutes earlier than eradicating the perm rods and rinsing.

Voila! Now you have got curly hair!


FAQ Icon
What’s hair concept?

Hair concept is mainly the science of doing hair and studying all of the totally different parts wanted to be a profitable hairstylist. This consists of colour concept, anatomy, chemistry, and even the enterprise aspect of operating a salon.

Why is it essential to be taught concept in hairdressing?

It will be unattainable to be a very good hairstylist with out understanding how issues work. Numerous science goes into hair colour… and even haircuts, curling, and many others. that’s essential to be taught.

Ultimate Ideas

Final Thoughts Icon

Hairstylists must be taught so many alternative features of hair by way of concept and expertise. In consequence, there’s much more that goes into hairdressing than one may assume.

Subsequent time you see your stylist, don’t neglect to understand how a lot work they do to maintain you wanting your finest!

Till subsequent time,


Your Flip: Did you be taught something cool about hair concept? Is there anything I ought to add to this publish? Drop your ideas within the feedback part under!

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